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The three species of vampire bats are all endemic to Latin America, and there is no evidence to suggest that they had any Old World relatives within human memory.
It is therefore impossible that the folkloric vampire represents a distorted presentation or memory of the vampire bat. The bats were named after the folkloric vampire rather than vice versa; the Oxford English Dictionary records their folkloric use in English from and the zoological not until The literary Dracula transforms into a bat several times in the novel, and vampire bats themselves are mentioned twice in it.
The vampire is now a fixture in popular fiction. The vampire theme continued in penny dreadful serial publications such as Varney the Vampire and culminated in the pre-eminent vampire novel in history: Dracula by Bram Stoker, published in Much is made of the price of eternal life, namely the incessant need for blood of former equals.
Byron was also credited with the first prose fiction piece concerned with vampires: The Vampyre was highly successful and the most influential vampire work of the early 19th century.
Varney the Vampire was a landmark popular mid- Victorian era gothic horror story by James Malcolm Rymer and Thomas Peckett Prest , which first appeared from to in a series of pamphlets generally referred to as penny dreadfuls because of their inexpensive price and typically gruesome contents.
It has a distinctly suspenseful style, using vivid imagery to describe the horrifying exploits of Varney. Like Varney before her, the vampire Carmilla is portrayed in a somewhat sympathetic light as the compulsion of her condition is highlighted.
Drawing on past works such as The Vampyre and Carmilla , Stoker began to research his new book in the late 19th century, reading works such as The Land Beyond the Forest by Emily Gerard and other books about Transylvania and vampires.
The latter part of the 20th century saw the rise of multi-volume vampire epics. It also set the trend for seeing vampires as poetic tragic heroes rather than as the more traditional embodiment of evil.
The 21st century brought more examples of vampire fiction, such as J. Such vampiric paranormal romance novels and allied vampiric chick-lit and vampiric occult detective stories are a remarkably popular and ever-expanding contemporary publishing phenomenon.
Vampires in the Twilight series — by Stephenie Meyer ignore the effects of garlic and crosses and are not harmed by sunlight, although it does reveal their supernatural status.
Considered one of the preeminent figures of the classic horror film, the vampire has proven to be a rich subject for the film and gaming industries.
Dracula is a major character in more films than any other but Sherlock Holmes , and many early films were either based on the novel Dracula or closely derived from it.
These included the German silent film Nosferatu , directed by F. The legend of the vampire continued through the film industry when Dracula was reincarnated in the pertinent Hammer Horror series of films, starring Christopher Lee as the Count.
The successful Dracula starring Lee was followed by seven sequels. Lee returned as Dracula in all but two of these and became well known in the role.
The Gothic soap opera Dark Shadows , on American television from to and produced by Dan Curtis , featured the vampire character Barnabas Collins , portrayed by Canadian actor Jonathan Frid , which proved partly responsible for making the series one of the most popular of its type, amassing a total of 1, episodes in its nearly five-year run.
The pilot for the later Dan Curtis television series Kolchak: Archaeologists, historians, and forensic scientists revisit the days of vampire hysteria in the eighteenth-century Czech Republic and re-open the unholy grave of dark princess Eleonore von Schwarzenberg.
They uncover her story, once buried and long forgotten, now raised from the dead. The series Blood Ties premiered on Lifetime Television in , featuring a character portrayed as Henry Fitzroy, illegitimate son of Henry VIII of England turned vampire, in modern-day Toronto , with a female former Toronto detective in the starring role.
It featured an unconventional trio of a vampire, a werewolf and a ghost who are sharing a flat in Bristol. The continuing popularity of the vampire theme has been ascribed to a combination of two factors: The role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade has been influential upon modern vampire fiction and elements of its terminology, such as embrace and sire , appear in contemporary fiction.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vampire disambiguation. List of vampires in folklore and mythology. List of vampire traits in folklore and fiction.
Garlic, Bibles, crucifixes, rosaries, holy water, and mirrors have all been seen in various folkloric traditions as means of warding against or identifying vampires.
Vampire folklore by region. From Nosferatu to Interview with the Vampire pp. Archived from the original on 26 January Retrieved 26 January Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed.
Vampires as Creatures of the Imagination: Hirzel —" in German. Archived from the original on 26 September Archived from the original on 14 June Retrieved 13 June Mify Narodov Mira in Russian.
Живая Старина in Russian. Archived from the original on 25 February Retrieved 28 February Archived from the original on 12 January Testamento del paisa in Spanish 7th ed.
An Encyclopaedia of Occultism. Witchcraft and Magic in the Nordic Middle Ages. University of Pennsylvania Press. Die Bestattung in Litauen in der vorgeschichtlichen Zeit in German.
Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society. Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Vampires or Revenants: The Element Encyclopedia of Vampires. Aberglaube und Stafrecht in German.
In Search of Dracula. Vikram and The Vampire: Vampires, Einstein and Jewish Folklore". Retrieved 5 December Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association.
Critical and Historical Studies on the Preternatural. The New Annotated Dracula. Retrieved 20 November The encyclopedia of the undead.
Visible Ink Press, De servorum Dei beatificatione et sanctorum canonizatione. The Evolution of Modern Vampirism".
Turismo, Mitologia Chilota, leyendas in Spanish. Ediciones de la Voz de Chiloe. American Journal of Physical Anthropology.
Stories and Studies of Strange Things. Houghton, Mifflin and Company. Creatures of Philippine Lower Mythology. The Religious System of China.
Jiangshi Films in a Transnational Context". Draculas, Vampires, and Other Undead Forms. Pullout From Southern Malawi".
The New York Times. Archived from the original on A Yearly Journal of Folklore Studies The politics of contemporary enchantment. The politics and aesthetics of Gothic club dancing".
Vampires in Their Own Words: An Anthology of Vampire Voices. The Vampires of Folklore and Fiction". Retrieved 29 June Retrieved 25 December The Mississauga News online.
Retrieved 9 November Retrieved 18 March Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Vampires, Mummies, and Liberals: Bram Stoker and the Politics of Popular Fiction.
Gothic Reflections between horror and hope" PDF. Archived from the original PDF on 28 January The Agrarian Myth on Film".
Symbolic and Mythological Animals. American College of Heraldry. Retrieved 1 November Why film vampires always break all the vampire rules".
Retrieved 8 August The Vampire in History and Myth. The characterization of Tepes as a vampire, however, is a distinctly Western one; in Romania, he is viewed not as a blood-drinking sadist but as a national hero who defended his empire from the Ottoman Turks.
The vampires most people are familiar with such as Dracula are revenants — human corpses that are said to return from the grave to harm the living; these vampires have Slavic origins only a few hundred years old.
But other, older, versions of the vampire were not thought to be human at all but instead supernatural, possibly demonic, entities that did not take human form.
Matthew Beresford, author of " From Demons to Dracula: The Creation of the Modern Vampire Myth " Reaktion, , notes, "There are clear foundations for the vampire in the ancient world, and it is impossible to prove when the myth first arose.
There are suggestions that the vampire was born out of sorcery in ancient Egypt, a demon summoned into this world from some other.
There are Asian vampires, such as the Chinese jiangshi pronounced chong-shee , evil spirits that attack people and drain their life energy; the blood-drinking Wrathful Deities that appear in the "Tibetan Book of the Dead," and many others.
While most people can name several elements of vampire lore, there are no firmly established characteristics. Some are said not to cast a reflection, but others do.
Holy water and sunlight are said to repel or kill some vampires, but not others. The one universal characteristic is the draining of a vital bodily fluid, typically blood.
One of the reasons that vampires make such successful literary figures is that they have a rich and varied history and folklore.
Writers can play with the "rules" while adding, subtracting or changing them to fit whatever story they have in mind. Finding a vampire is not always easy: The boy should be dressed in white, placed upon the horse, and the pair set loose in a graveyard at midday.
Interest and belief in revenants surged in the Middle Ages in Europe. Though in most modern stories the classic way to become a vampire is to be bitten by one, that is a relatively new twist.
In his book " Vampires, Burial, and Death: Folklore and Reality " Yale, , folklorist Paul Barber noted that centuries ago, "Often potential revenants can be identified at birth, usually by some abnormality, some defect, as when a child is born with teeth.
Other texts maintain that running backwards uphill with a lit candle and a turtle would ward off a stalking vampire. Alternately, they may surround the grave with a red woolen thread, ignite the thread, and wait until it was burnt up.
One of the earliest recordings of vampire activity came from the region of Istria in modern Croatia, in The village leader ordered a stake to be driven through his heart, but when the method failed to kill him, he was subsequently beheaded with better results.
In Spain there are several traditions about beings with vampiric tendencies. In Asturias highlights the Guaxa , which is described as an old vampire who sticks his single tooth and sucks the blood of its victims.
In the Canary Islands there was also a belief in vampiric beings, here in the form of blood-sucking witch. One such example is provided by the legend of the Witches of Anaga in Tenerife.
Various regions of Africa have folkloric tales of beings with vampiric abilities: Female vampire-like monsters are the Soucouyant of Trinidad , and the Tunda and Patasola of Colombian folklore, while the Mapuche of southern Chile have the bloodsucking snake known as the Peuchen.
The Loogaroo is an example of how a vampire belief can result from a combination of beliefs, here a mixture of French and African Vodu or voodoo.
There are many documented cases of families disinterring loved ones and removing their hearts in the belief that the deceased was a vampire who was responsible for sickness and death in the family, although the term "vampire" was never actually used to describe the deceased.
The deadly disease tuberculosis , or "consumption" as it was known at the time, was believed to be caused by nightly visitations on the part of a dead family member who had died of consumption themselves.
Her father, assisted by the family physician, removed her from her tomb two months after her death and her heart was cut out and burnt to ashes.
Among the Wyandots was the legend of the hooh-strah-dooh. The redbud was believed to be an effective ward.
Rooted in older folklore, the modern belief in vampires spread throughout Asia with tales of ghoulish entities from the mainland, to vampiric beings from the islands of Southeast Asia.
India also developed other vampiric legends. It wanders around animating dead bodies at night, attacking the living much like a ghoul.
Japan has no native legends about vampires. However some Japanese mythical creatures bare some similarities to vampires, such as the Nure-onna who is a snake -like woman that feasts on human blood.
Japanese vampires made their first appearances in the Cinema of Japan during the late s. Legends of female vampire-like beings who can detach parts of their upper body occur in the Philippines , Malaysia , Cambodia and Indonesia.
There are two main vampire-like creatures in the Philippines: The mandurugo is a variety of the aswang that takes the form of an attractive girl by day, and develops wings and a long, hollow, thread-like tongue by night.
They use an elongated proboscis-like tongue to suck fetuses off pregnant women. They also prefer to eat entrails specifically the heart and the liver and the phlegm of sick people.
The manananggal is described as being an older, beautiful woman capable of severing its upper torso in order to fly into the night with huge bat-like wings and prey on unsuspecting, sleeping pregnant women in their homes.
The tongue is used to suck up blood from a sleeping victim. The Malaysian Penanggalan may be either a beautiful old or young woman who obtained her beauty through the active use of black magic or other unnatural means, and is most commonly described in local folklores to be dark or demonic in nature.
She is able to detach her fanged head which flies around in the night looking for blood, typically from pregnant women.
She appeared as an attractive woman with long black hair that covered a hole in the back of her neck, which she sucked the blood of children with.
Filling the hole with her hair would drive her off. Corpses had their mouths filled with glass beads, eggs under each armpit, and needles in their palms to prevent them from becoming langsuir.
In Cambodia, the Ab Khmer: Married Abs go to bed quickly and starts detaching their heads. Most of them do not allow anyone to go into the room and their husbands are afraid of them, some might even run away from the house.
In movies, women turn into abs through a special holy water but according to local legends it is passed through heredity. Abs are considered to be afraid of humans but will run after them if they are afraid of her.
She might get her intestines stuck into thorns. The Abs like a river go along a certain path and remembers it very carefully.
Jiangshi , sometimes called "Chinese vampires" by Westerners, are corpses that are usually reanimated due to magical reasons. In ancient China, people always had the preference of being buried in their hometowns, and when a person dies in a land that is not their hometown, their family members hire a sorcerer to bring back their deceased family member.
Usually, the sorcerer would travel by night, and would at least have around three jiangshi traveling with it.
Instead of being an obedient corpse that followed the sorcerer, the jiangshi would be rampant and dangerous. Some unusual features of the Chinese vampire include its long, curved fingernails, perhaps derived from the appearance of growing fingernails on corpses due to flesh recession, and its greenish-white furry skin, perhaps derived from fungus or mould growing on corpses.
Films like Encounters of the Spooky Kind and Mr. Vampire were released during the jiangshi cinematic boom of the s and s. In most cases he is said to be a giant who towers over his human victims.
In the primary form, his face is blue and splotched with blood. Red rays radiate from his bloodshot eyes. Blood pours from his nostrils and smoke billows from his ears.
His mouth is filled with decomposing human flesh and his breath is foul. His entire body is coloured scarlet with dripping blood.
He is closely associated with Mara , the demon king of death. Among the Romani people , mullo literally one who is dead are believed to return from the dead and cause malicious acts as well as drink human blood, most often that of a relative or the person who had caused their death.
Female vampires could return, lead a normal life and even marry but would eventually exhaust the husband with their sexual appetite.
Anyone who had a horrible appearance, was missing a finger, or had appendages similar to those of an animal was believed to be a vampire.
A person who died alone and unseen would become a vampire,  likewise if a corpse swelled or turned black before burial. Likewise, a settlement could be protected by finding twins who could also see the vampire outdoors at night, who would have to flee immediately after they spotted it.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Europe portal History portal Mythology portal Occult portal. In Search of Dracula. The Hebrew Goddess 3rd enl.
Wayne State University Press. Archived from the original on November 13, Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association.
The Johns Hopkins University Press. Vikram and The Vampire: Kabbalah in the Bibliotheca Philosophica Hermetica.
Archived from the original on The Consuming Story of Vampires.