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In the contemporary era Germany has developed eleven Universities of Excellence: Currently the population is covered by a health insurance plan provided by statute, with criteria allowing some groups to opt for a private health insurance contract.
A study shows Germany has the highest number of overweight people in Europe. Culture in German states has been shaped by major intellectual and popular currents in Europe, both religious and secular.
Historically, Germany has been called Das Land der Dichter und Denker "the land of poets and thinkers" ,  because of the major role its writers and philosophers have played in the development of Western thought.
Germany is well known for such folk festival traditions as Oktoberfest and Christmas customs , which include Advent wreaths , Christmas pageants , Christmas trees , Stollen cakes, and other practices.
In the 21st century Berlin has emerged as a major international creative centre. During his tenure as violinist and teacher at the Salzburg cathedral, Augsburg-born composer Leopold Mozart mentored one of the most noted musicians of all time: Ludwig van Beethoven was a crucial figure in the transition between the Classical and Romantic eras.
Robert Schumann and Johannes Brahms composed in the Romantic idiom. Richard Wagner was known for his operas. Richard Strauss was a leading composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras.
Karlheinz Stockhausen and Hans Zimmer are important composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. Germany is the second largest music market in Europe, and fourth largest in the world.
German electronic music gained global influence, with Kraftwerk and Tangerine Dream pioneering in this genre. Paul van Dyk , Paul Kalkbrenner , and Scooter.
German painters have influenced western art. The New Objectivity arose as a counter-style to it during the Weimar Republic.
Other notable artists who work with traditional media or figurative imagery include Martin Kippenberger , Gerhard Richter , Sigmar Polke , and Neo Rauch.
Major art exhibitions and festivals in Germany are the documenta , the Berlin Biennale , transmediale and Art Cologne. Architectural contributions from Germany include the Carolingian and Ottonian styles , which were precursors of Romanesque.
Brick Gothic is a distinctive medieval style that evolved in Germany. Also in Renaissance and Baroque art, regional and typically German elements evolved e.
Weser Renaissance and Dresden Baroque. The Wessobrunner School exerted a decisive influence on, and at times even dominated, the art of stucco in southern Germany in the 18th century.
The Upper Swabian Baroque Route offers a baroque-themed tourist route that highlights the contributions of such artists and craftsmen as the sculptor and plasterer Johann Michael Feuchtmayer , one of the foremost members of the Feuchtmayer family and the brothers Johann Baptist Zimmermann and Dominikus Zimmermann.
Notable sub-styles that evolved since the 18th century are the German spa and seaside resort architecture. Expressionist architecture developed in the s in Germany and influenced Art Deco and other modern styles, with e.
Germany was particularly important in the early modernist movement: Consequently, Germany is often considered the cradle of modern architecture and design.
German literature can be traced back to the Middle Ages and the works of writers such as Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.
The collections of folk tales published by the Brothers Grimm popularised German folklore on an international level.
German philosophy is historically significant: The German video gaming market is one of the largest in the world. German cinema has made major technical and artistic contributions to film.
The first works of the Skladanowsky Brothers were shown to an audience in The defining film genre in West Germany of the s was arguably the Heimatfilm "homeland film" ; these films depicted the beauty of the land and the moral integrity of the people living in it.
Various Germans won an "Oscar" award for their performances in other films. German cuisine varies from region to region and often neighbouring regions share some culinary similarities e.
International varieties such as pizza , sushi , Chinese food , Greek food , Indian cuisine and doner kebab are also popular. German cheeses account for about a third of all cheese produced in Europe.
Germans produce their ubiquitous sausages in almost 1, varieties, including Bratwursts and Weisswursts. Although wine is becoming more popular in many parts of Germany, especially close to German wine regions ,  the national alcoholic drink is beer.
The Michelin Guide awarded eleven restaurants in Germany three stars , the highest designation, while 38 more received two stars and one star.
Twenty-seven million Germans are members of a sports club and an additional twelve million pursue sports individually. With more than 6.
Other popular spectator sports include winter sports , boxing , basketball , handball , volleyball , ice hockey , tennis , horse riding and golf.
Water sports like sailing , rowing , and swimming are popular in Germany as well. Germany is one of the leading motor sports countries in the world.
Constructors like BMW and Mercedes are prominent manufacturers in motor sport. Porsche has won the 24 Hours of Le Mans race 19 times, and Audi 13 times as of [update].
He is one of the highest paid sportsmen in history. Historically, German athletes have been successful contenders in the Olympic Games , ranking third in an all-time Olympic Games medal count when combining East and West German medals.
Germany was the last country to host both the summer and winter games in the same year, in the Berlin Summer Games and the Winter Games in Garmisch-Partenkirchen.
German designers became early leaders of modern product design , with the Bauhaus designers like Mies van der Rohe , and Dieter Rams of Braun being essential pioneers.
Germany is a leading country in the fashion industry. The German textile industry consisted of about 1, companies with more than , employees in , which generated a revenue of 28 billion Euro.
Almost 44 per cent of the products are exported. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Germany disambiguation and Deutschland disambiguation.
For the country from to , see West Germany. Federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. Show map of Europe.
Germania , Migration Period , and Frankish Realm. East Francia and Holy Roman Empire. Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany. History of Germany — German reunification and History of Germany since List of cities and towns in Germany and List of cities in Germany by population.
Largest cities or towns in Germany Statistical offices in Germany 31 December Foreign relations of Germany. Transport in Germany and Rail transport in Germany.
Science and technology in Germany. Demographics of Germany and Germans. Baroque Dresden Frauenkirche Evangelical. Gothic Cologne Cathedral Roman Catholic.
German language and Languages of Germany. Friedrich , Wanderer above the Sea of Fog Franz Marc , Roe Deer in the Forest German literature and German philosophy.
Forbundsrepublikken Tyskland Low German: Federalni Republika Jermaniya North Frisian: Since , the third verse alone has been the national anthem.
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The melody used by the "Deutschlandlied" was still in use as the anthem of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until its demise in In the black, red and gold tricolour, the colours of the 19th century liberal revolutionaries advocated by the political left and centre, was adopted rather than the previous black, white and red of Imperial Germany.
In this way, the first verse became closely identified with the Nazi regime. After its founding in , West Germany did not have a national anthem for official events for some years, despite the growing need for the purpose of diplomatic procedures.
In lieu of an official national anthem, popular German songs such as the Trizonesien-Song , a carnival song mocking the occupying Allied powers, were used at some sporting events.
Though the black, red and gold colours of the national flag had been incorporated into Article 22 of the West German constitution , a national anthem was not specified.
On 29 April , Chancellor Konrad Adenauer asked President Theodor Heuss in a letter to accept " Das Lied der Deutschen " as the national anthem, with only the third stanza being sung on official occasions.
President Heuss agreed to this on 2 May This exchange of letters was published in the Bulletin of the Federal Government. Since it was viewed as the traditional right of the President as head of state to set the symbols of the state, the " Deutschlandlied " thus became the national anthem.
As the lyrics of this anthem called for "Germany, united Fatherland", they were no longer officially used, from about ,  after the DDR abandoned its goal of uniting Germany under communism.
With slight adaptations, the lyrics of " Auferstanden aus Ruinen " can be sung to the melody of the " Deutschlandlied " and vice versa.
In the s and 80s, efforts were made by conservatives in Germany to reclaim all three stanzas for the anthem. The opening line of the third stanza, " Einigkeit und Recht und Freiheit " "Unity and Justice and Freedom" , is widely considered to be the national motto of Germany, although it was never officially proclaimed as such.
The first verse, which is no longer part of the national anthem and is not sung on official occasions, names three rivers and one strait — the Meuse Maas in German , Adige Etsch and Neman Memel Rivers and the Little Belt strait — as the boundaries of the German Sprachbund.
As the song was written before German unification, there was never an intention to deliniate borders of Germany as a nation-state.
Nevertheless, these geographical references have been variously criticized as irredentist or misleading. The Belt strait and the Neman later became actual boundaries of Germany the Belt until , the Neman until , whereas the Meuse and Adige were not parts of the German Reich as of Today, no part of any of the four places mentioned in the " Deutschlandlied " lies in Germany.
In an ethnic sense, none of these places formed a distinct ethnic border. The Duchy of Schleswig to which the Belt refers was inhabited by both Germans and Danes, with the Danes forming a clear majority near the strait.
Around the Adige there was a mix of German, Venetian and Gallo-Italian speakers, and the area around the Neman was not homogeneously German, but also accommodated Lithuanians.
The Meuse if taken as referencing the Duchy of Limburg , nominally part of the German Confederation for 28 years due to the political consequences of the Belgian Revolution , was ethnically Dutch with few Germans.
Nevertheless, such nationalistic rhetoric was relatively common in 19th-century public discourse. Despite the text and tune of the song being quite peaceful compared to some other national anthems, the song has frequently been criticised for its generally nationalistic tone, the immodest geographic definition of Germany given in the first stanza, and the alleged male-chauvinistic attitude in the second stanza.
However, the latter misleading translation was chosen by the Allies during both World Wars for propaganda purposes. German president Theodor Heuss , upon request from chancellor Konrad Adenauer , declared the Lied der Deutschen the national anthem of the German Federal Republic in May , along with the provision that only the third verse was to be sung at official occasions.
As a result, the Lied implicitly in its entirety was declared the national anthem, with the provision that the third verse would have precedence. The inclusion of the first two verses was met with criticism at the time.
The first two verses are therefore no longer part of the national anthem, and the performance of the first verse in some cases has been portrayed as controversial.
In , Pete Doherty was supposed to sing the German national anthem live on radio at Bayerischer Rundfunk in Munich. As he sang the first verse, he was booed by the audience.
A spokesperson for Bayerischer Rundfunk welcomed the response, stating that otherwise further cooperation with Doherty would not have been possible.
When the first verse was played as the German national anthem at the canoe sprint world championships in Hungary in August , German athletes were reportedly "appalled".
Similarly, in the first verse was mistakenly sung by Will Kimble, a U. In an unsuccessful attempt to drown out the soloist, German tennis players and fans started to sing the third verse instead.
Unity and justice and freedom For the German fatherland; This let us all pursue, Brotherly with heart and hand. Unity and justice and freedom Are the pledge of fortune.
It gained some currency after the unification of Germany, with a number of prominent Germans opting for his "antihymn" to be made official: Grace spare not and spare no labour Passion nor intelligence That a decent German nation Flourish as do other lands.
That the people give up flinching At the crimes which we evoke And hold out their hand in friendship As they do to other folk.
The German musician Nico sometimes performed the national anthem at concerts and dedicated it to militant Andreas Baader , leader of the Red Army Faction.
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Types and functions of linguistic resistance on the streets of the GDR ]. Retrieved 18 January Retrieved 24 MayObwohl Carsten Jancker die Heimmannschaft bereits in der sechsten Spielminute in Führung casino on net free 40 hatte, feierten die Engländer an jenem Tag mit 5: Bitte wählen Sie einen Newsletter aus. Hier können Sie länderspiel gestern Rechte an diesem Artikel erwerben. Minute mit dem Treffer zum 2: Best Ager - Für Senioren und Angehörige. Wieder ging es in die Verlängerung, in der diesmal die Deutschen das bessere Ende hatten.